When discussing the facts of tropical rainforest you have to understand the special characteristics of these forests which are the presence of very high temperatures and large amount of rainfall. When you have a rainforest which is situated in the area between the latitude 28 degrees south and north of the equator, then these forests are known as a tropical rain forest. These forests are found in Africa, Asia, South America and some islands in the Indian Oceans too.
Features of the soil
Tropical rain forests are very different from various other types of forest found around the world. Due to the heavy rain, the nutrients of the soil are washed off and this causes soil weathering. However, these soils have a rich composition of iron oxide and aluminum. The wide diversity in vegetation makes the soil rich, especially when living plants decompose to add nutrition to the soil.
Type of vegetation found in these natural rain forests
The vegetation is very dense in these forests and a large percentage of plant species exist here. When visiting these rain forests you can see that the roots of the trees are shallow and not deep. Since vegetation is very thick natural sunlight does not penetrate easily and the trees grow tall in order to receive their quota of emergent’s. Since the soil is shallow these trees have extra roots which grow from the trunk and absorb the nutrients from the soil. Epiphytes also exist in these tropical rain forests in the form if fungi and mosses. A very special feature of vegetation is that you would find carnivorous plants here.
Animals found here
It has been estimated that these tropical rainforests are home to nearly 50% of animals and insect population. It has been estimated that even today most of the species have not been discovered. Unique animals like anaconda the largest snake in the world, Boa constrictors and morpho butterfly are found in these tropical rain forests. Various types of Gorillas and Orangutans are found in African and Indonesian tropical rainforests. There is also a rich amphibian population found in these rain forests and this would also include the poison dart forests. Colorful large birds like macaws and parrots decorate these forests here.
Climate in tropical rain forests
When studying tropical rain forests one has to understand that the temperatures here are very high and humid. The annual rainfall is around hundred to four hundred inches. The floor of these tropical rain forests is always wet and this makes the decomposition percentage very high. Due to the heavy vegetation these tropical rain forests are large storages of oxygen and this has a great effect on the global climate. Due to the greenhouse effect temperatures in the area have gone up and El Nino is causing long dry spell in the areas. This is a disturbing trend when studying the facts of tropical rainforest.